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SP Library

Citation Guide: End-of-text Referencing

Books

 

Details to provide
  • Author/Editor(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Book title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
Examples

One or more authors

One author
Liu, A., 2004. The laws of cool: knowledge work and the culture of information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Two author
Peter, J. P., Donnelly, J. H. , 2015. A preface to marketing management. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 
Three or more authors
Palamatier, R., et al., 2015. Marketing channel strategy. 8th ed. Boston: Pearson.
If book is edited, rather than authored
Watts, M., ed., 2003. Technology: taking the distance out of learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Anonymous author

Anon., 2002. Maximum Windows 2000 security. Indianapolis, Indiana: Sams.

No author

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary, 2003. 11th ed. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster.

Note: For a book without an author, the title is used in the reference list. Titles beginning with any articles (a, an, or, the, etc.) are disregarded from the alphabetical arrangement, e.g.

1.  Angelides, M.C. and Agius, H.W., 2000. ...
2.  The digital crime network. ...
3.  Fogey, B., 2001. ...

Chinese names

Authors: Sunny T.H. Goh and Khoo Kheng-Hor
Goh, S. T. H. and Khoo, K. H., 2003. Marketing wise: an unconventional approach to strategic marketing for Asia. Selangor, Malaysia; London: Prentice Hall.

Malay names

Authors: Muhamad bin Zakaria and Mustafa Ali Mohd
Muhamad bin Zakaria and Mustafa Ali Mohd, 1994. Traditional Malay medicinal plants. Kuala Lumpur : Fajar Bakti.

Indian names

Authors: Krishna Sankar, et al.
Krishna, S., et al., 2004. Cisco wireless LAN security. Indianapolis, Indiana: Cisco.
Author: G. Sivalingam
Sivalingam, G., 2005. Competition policy in the ASEAN countries. Singapore: Thomson Learning.

Sikh names

Author: Amit Singh
Singh, A., 2007. Mac OS X internals: a systems approach. New Jersey: Addison-Wesley.

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Article within a book

 

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s) of the article/chapter
  • Year of publication
  • Article/chapter title
  • Editor(s) of book
  • Book title (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Article/chapter pages
Example Dahl, S., 2015. Social marketing in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. In: Nguyen, B., Rowley, C., eds., Ethical and Social Marketing in Asia. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 117-130.

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Illustration from a book (including table, chart, graph, figure, etc.)

 

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author/Editor(s) of book
  • Year of publication
  • Book title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page(s)
  • Illus. / table / chart / graph / fig. etc.
Example Parkin, M., 2015. Economics. 11th ed. Harlow: Pearson, p. 277, fig.

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Publication from a government or private organisation

 

Details to provide

  • Name of organisation
  • Year of publication
  • Title of publication (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Example

Euromonitor, 2014. Consumer Asia Pacific and Australasia. London: Euromonitor.

Singapore Department of Statistics, 2014. Yearbook of Statistics Singapore. Singapore: Ministry of Trade & Industry.

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Journal articles

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Article title
  • Journal title (in italics)
  • Volume
  • Issue (if available)
  • Pages

 

Example

Sacks, G., Mialon, M., Vandevijvere, S., Trevena, H., Snowdon, W., Crino, M., Swinburn, B., 2015. Comparison of food industry policies and commitments on marketing to children and product (re)formulation in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji. Critical Public Health, 25(3), pp. 299-319.

(*Note: For the in-text citation, this would be Sacks et al. (2015) as there are more than 4 authors)

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Newspaper / Magazine articles

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Article title
  • Newspaper/magazine title (in italics)
  • Date of publication
  • Pages/Section
Example

Newspaper article
Sivanithy, R., 2015. Index loses grip on early gains. The Business Times, 5 June, p. 10: Companies & Markets.
Magazine article
Cole, E., 2015. Ready, Steady, Swarm. BBC Knowledge. 7(1), p. 36-40.

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Conferences

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s) of paper
  • Year of publication
  • Title of paper
  • Editor(s) of conference proceedings
  • Conference title (in italics)
  • Location (if available)
  • Date of conference
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Pages
Example Baker, E., 2015. Information Management for Map-Based Visualizations of Robot Teams. In: Adams, J., Smart, W., eds. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 2-5 March 2015. New York, NY, United States: ACM, pp. 205-206.

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Theses / Dissertations

Details to provide
  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • Thesis/dissertation title (in italics)
  • Type of document (e.g. Ph.D. thesis, degree dissertation)
  • Awarding institution
Example Teh, Y.C., 1990. The organisation of Singapore Polytechnic. Thesis (M. Ed.), University of Manchester.

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Standards

Details to provide
  • Organisation
  • Year of publication
  • Standard number and year
  • Title of standard (in italics)
  • Place of publication (if known)
  • Publisher
Example British Standards Institution, 2012. BS15632:2012. Microbeam analysis : selected instrumental performance parameters for the specification and checking of energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers for use in electron probe microanalysis. London: BSI.

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Patents

 

Details to provide

  • Originator/Applicant
  • Year of publication
  • Patent title (in italics)
  • Series designation

 

Example

Aziz, A., 1997. Method and apparatus for a key management scheme for Internet protocols. United States Patent Application 68-438. 27 May.

Borg Warner Inc., 2005. Control devices for clutches and / or gear actuators of an automated gearbox or an automatic transmission. European Patent EP1519081 - 2005-03-30.

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Research reports

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Report title (in italics)
  • Research Report No. (if available)
  • Place of publication (if known)
  • Publisher
Example Edwards, A., 1995. Asia-Pacific travel forecasts to 2005. Research Report R460. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.

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Statutes and subsidiary legislation

 

Details to provide

  • Country/state name
  • Title (in italics)
  • Year of publication
  • Chapter number
  • Regulation number, if available
Example Singapore. Companies Act 2006 (c. 50).

Singapore. Merchant Shipping (Training, Certification and Manning) Regulations 2001 (c. 179, r. 1).

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Law reports

 

Details to provide

  • Case title (in italics)
  • Year of report
  • Volume number
  • Abbreviation of the law report series
  • Pages
Example Lee Hin Realty Pte Ltd v Lee Tah Wee David [1995] 3 SLR 521-530.

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Films / Videos / DVDs / VCDs

 

Details to provide

  • Series title and number (if any)
  • Programme title (in italics)
  • Medium/format
  • Year of publication
  • Director (for films)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

 

 

Examples

Upside down [Film], 2013. Directed by Juan Diego Solanas. USA: Millennium Entertainment.

Manufacturing Engineering Magazine Video series. Manufacturing insights: Flexible material handling [VHS video], 1998. Dearborn, Michigan: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Computer animation extravaganza [DVD], 2000. Chatsworth, California: Odyssey Productions.

Professional Educators of Tennessee, 2014. Effectively using EDMODO in your classroom [online]. [Accessed 6 October 2015]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XopnawMnZA.

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TV programmes

 

Details to provide

  • Programme title (in italics)
  • Episode number and title (if any)
  • Medium [TV]
  • Year of broadcast
  • Broadcast organisation and channel
  • Date and time of broadcast
Example That's IT Series 8. Episode 7, The draw of blogs [TV], 2008. Channel NewsAsia. 6 Feb. 2030 hrs.

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CD-ROMs

 

Details to provide

  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • Title (in italics)
  • Format [CD-ROM]
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
Examples World Bank, 2007. World Development Indicators [CD-ROM]. Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Nichols, C., 2006. Global illumination: Interiors [CD-ROM]. Hollywood, California: Gnomon Workshop.

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Music / Sound recordings

 

Details to provide

  • Artist/Speaker(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Song title (for music recording)
  • Album/Record title (in italics)
  • Format [CD or Cassette]
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Examples

Mayer, J., 2012. The age of worry. In: Born and raised [CD]. New York: Columbia Records.

Dubner, S., 2005. Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything [CD]. New York: HarperAudio.

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Interviews / Transcripts

 

Details to provide

  • Interviewee(s)
  • Year of interview
  • Title of interview (in italics)
  • Interviewer(s)
  • Date of interview
Example Tan, J., 2015. How to use OneSearch effectively [Interview by B.L. Foo], 2 May 2015.

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Lectures

 

Details to provide

  • Lecturer
  • Year of lecture
  • Title of lecture (in italics)
  • Module/Occasion of lecture
  • Date of lecture
  • Place of lecture

 

 

Example

Sim, M., 2015. Marketing: An introduction. Lecture for module BA0357: Fundamentals of Marketing, 5 January 2015, Singapore Polytechnic.

If the slides are to be used, note the URL and accessed date for materials uploaded online:

Sim, M. (2015). Marketing: An introduction, lecture notes distributed in BA0357: Fundamentals of Marketing at Singapore Polytechnic on 5 January 2015. Available at: https://esp.sp.edu.sg (Accessed 5 June 2015).

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Presentation slides

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year (if available)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Type of document (e.g. PowerPoint presentation)
  • URL
  • Accessed date
Example Sale, D., 2013. Introduction to CDIO: Key features & components [PowerPoint presentation]. Available from: https://slideplayer.com/slide/220281/ [Accessed 6 June 2015].

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Student practical or laboratory manual

 

Details to provide

  • School
  • Year of publication
  • Student practical or laboratory manual title (in italics)
  • Type of document (e.g. practical & tutorial manual)
  • Educational institution
Example School of Chemical and Life Sciences, 2015. CP4009 Basic instrumental analysis, practical & tutorial manual, Singapore Polytechnic.

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E-Books

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • E-book title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • URL or database title (if e-book is located in a database)
  • Accessed date
Examples Gödert, W., Hubrich, J., Nagelschmidt, M., 2014. Semantic Knowledge Representation for Information Retrieval [online]. Berlin: De Gruyter Saur. Available from: EBL [Accessed 8 June 2015].

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Articles from e-journals / databases

 

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Article title
  • Journal/magazine/newspaper title (in italics)
  • [Online] or [CD-ROM]
  • Date of publication
  • Volume
  • Issue (if available)
  • Pages (if available)
  • URL or database title
  • Accessed date

 

 

 

 

Examples

Ellison, J., 2015. The First Step. Climbing [online], May 2015, 335, 36-37. Available from: ProQuest [Accessed 6 June 2015].

Karekar, R., 2015. DBS gets nod to set up branches in AustraliaThe Straits Times [online], 4 June 2015. Available from: Factiva.com [Accessed 6 June 2015].

Euromonitor International, 2015. Eating habits. Consumer lifestyles in Singapore [online], May 2015. Available from: Passport [Accessed 6 June 2015].

Swaine, R., 2000. Flavor chemistry and innovation. Perfumer & Flavorist [CD-ROM], Nov/Dec, 25, pp. 1-6. Available from: Perfumer & flavorist: 25 years, 1976-2000 [Accessed 3 June 2002].

Morton, J., 2015. 5 tips for a hassle-free lighting upgrade. Buildings [online]. Available from: https://www.buildings.com/article-details/articleid/18945/title/5-tips-for-a-hasslefree-lighting-upgrade.aspx [Accessed 6 June 2015].

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Internet resources (Websites, online media, etc.)

 

 

Details to provide

  • Author/Editor(s)
  • Year (if available)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [Online]
  • Place of publication (if available)
  • Publisher (if available)
  • URL
  • Accessed date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples

One author

Chu, F., 2014. Quick Guide - CLS [online]. Singapore: Singapore Polytechnic Library. Available from: https://sp-sg.libguides.com/cls [Accessed 25 May 2021].
Material published by an organization or company
Singapore Economic Development Board, 2015. Cities, infrastructure & industrial solutions [online]. Available from: https://www.edb.gov.sg/content/edb/en/industries/industries/cities-infrastructure-industrial-solutions.html [Accessed 11 November 2015].

No author

GVU's 10th user survey, 1998 [online]. Available from: https://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/reports/1998-10-General.html [Accessed 10 August 2005].

Photographs/Images

The Northwest Association for Biomedical Research, 2010. 2010 Student Fellows [photograph]. Portland: The Northwest Association for Biomedical Research. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/64704683@N04/5916985600 [Accessed 25 May 2021].

Online videos/podcasts

Usaamah Rahim to be buried, while Boston terror attack questions loom, 2015 [online video]. CNN.com. Available from: https://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/05/us/boston-police-shooting/ [Accessed 6 June 2015].

Weiszer, M., Page, F., 2015. Bulldogs welcome transfer quarterback, [podcast]. Bulldog Bytes. 5 June 2015. Available from: https://onlineathens.com/mobile/2015-06-04/bulldogs-bytes-podcast-bulldogs-welcome-transfer-quarterback [Accessed 6 June 2015].

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Blogs

 

Details to provide

  • Author(s)
  • Date of blog post
  • Title of blog post
  • Blog name (in italics)
  • URL
  • Accessed date
Example Silberling, A., 25 May 2021. New Instagram Insights make its TikTok competitor Reels more appealing. TechCrunch. Available from: https://techcrunch.com/2021/05/24/new-instagram-insights-make-its-tiktok-competitor-reels-more-appealing/ [Accessed 25 May 2021].

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Emails

 

Details to provide

  • Sender
  • Sender's email address
  • Date the email was sent
  • Subject of message (in italics)
  • Recipient
  • Recipient's email address
Example Tan, J. (sandytan@citeguru.com), 20 March 2015. Re:How to cite an email. Email to B.L. Foo (blfoo@citenoob.com).

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