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Citation Guide: In-text Citation

A Guide to Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing (In-text Citation)

Harvard Reference (Reference List)

For the Complete Guide

Harvard Style

When referring to a source or document in the body of your report/paper, indicate the author's surname and year of publication.

       
One author Multiple authors / sources Anonymous / No author Asian & Western authors Material published by an organisation or company
       
Quotations Illustrations / Tables / Charts / Pictures Websites Lecture notes Using ibid and op. cit.

 

One Author

Details to provide
  • Family name/ surname of author/editor(s)
  • Year of publication
Examples    

Liu (2004) believes that the definition of a team is diverse and multi-faceted.
or
The definition of a team is diverse and multi-faceted (Liu, 2004).


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Multiple Authors / Sources

Details to provide
  • Family name/ surname of authors/editors
  • Year of publication

2 or 3 authors

Jarvinen and Karjaluoto (2015) illustrated how Web analytics can be incorporated into digital marketing activities of businesses.

or
It has been illustrated on how Web analytics can be incorporated into digital marketing activities of businesses 
(Jarvinen & Karjaluoto, 2015).

[Note: '&' is used to link the authors' names within the brackets, but not when they appear as part of the sentence]


4 or more authors
 

Barry, et al. (2014) cited examples of how underaged children were exposed to messages related to alcohol marketing via YouTube.

[Note: "et al." represents the rest of the authors]


Multiple sources
 

There are new techniques to utilizing direct and digital marketing (Ryan, 2014; Reed, 2015).

 

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Anonymous / No author

Examples    

When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous", treat this as the author's name and cite in text using Anonymous, followed by year of publication: (Anonymous, 2016).

If the author of the work is not listed, cite the source by its title. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. 

E.g. Similar findings were done in the research on lab mice ("Study on lab mice," 2017)


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Asian & Non-typical Western Authors

Chinese names

Authors: Sunny T.H. Goh and Khoo Kheng-Hor
The main purpose of an advertisement is to win sales, not awards (Goh & Khoo, 2003).

Malay names

Author: Rindra Mohktar bin Ramli
Rindra Mohktar (2002) found that the most common and popular electronic information resource was the Internet.

Indian names

Author: Hiru Bijlani
Hiru (1999) recommends providing training programmes for managers who do not have experience in the global marketplace.
Author: G. Sivalingam
There are many competing and conflicting theories of what determines the price or value of a stock (Sivalingam, 1990).

Sikh names

Author: Ranjit Singh 
Singh (1990) also describes group strategies as a set of individual strategies. However, the joint plans discussed in this paper include actions and plans performed by other agents or teams with appropriate synchronization.
Western names

Authors: Huub Ruël and Harry van der Kaap
Ruël and van der Kaap (2015) found that contextual facilitating factors play a role in Human Resource Management (HRM) value creation among e-HRM users.

 

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Material Published By An Organisation or Company

 

Examples

According to the World Health Organisation (2014), half of the world's population is at risk of contracting Malaria.
It was shown that there were 207 million estimated cases of Malaria in 2012 (World Health Organisation, 2014).

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Quotation

A short quotation should be included in the body of the text in quotation marks, and the page number given.


Example

He observed that the definition of a team is "many and complex" (Liu, 2004, p. 47).
If it is longer than a line, the whole quotation should be indented.

Example

The following is an observation from a famous author:
Creativity is not a mystical talent that some people have and others can only envy. Lateral thinking is the type of creative thinking that can be learned, practiced, and used by everyone. Some people will be better at it than others, as with any skill. (De Bono, 1992, p. 310)
Web documents usually do not have fixed page numbers. For documents without pagination, alternatives such as number of lines, paragraphs or screens etc. may be used e.g. (l. 65), (para. 2) or (screen 4).

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Illustrations / Tables / Charts / Pictures


Illustrations / Tables / Figures/ Plates

When referring to data from a table or chart, include the author and page number to enable the reader to verify the data.

Example
In the latest set of findings resulted in the 2014 Comprehensive Labour Force Survey, non-seasonally adjusted resident unemployment rate was reported to have risen to 3.9% from 3.7% in 2013 (Singapore Ministry of Manpower, 2014, p. 33). The breakdown of the resident unemployment rate by age and highest qualification attained have been included in Table 1.


*Note: If the source of data is not the author's own, but from another source, it is cited as a second hand reference. If the entire illustration, table, chart or picture is to be reproduced in your report, you can place the citation as a footnote.

Table

Table 1: Resident unemployment rate by age and highest qualification attained,2013 and 2014 (June) (Non-seasonally adjusted)
Highest Qualification Attained 2013 2014
Below Secondary 3.5    3.9
Secondary 3.8 4.0
Post Secondary 3.9 4.0
Diploma & Professional Qualification 3.6 3.9
Degree 3.6 3.9
Total 3.7 3.9

(Singapore Ministry of Manpower, p.33).

Chart



Figure 1: Singapore labour force in 2004, 2009 and 2014. Indicates number and percent of annualised change in residents and non-residents (Singapore Ministry of Manpower, 2014).


Picture



Plate 1: One of the growth strategies highlighted by the Urban Redevelopment Agency (Urban Redevelopment Agency, 2015).

Table Chart Picture
- Labeled as 'Tables' - Labeled as 'Figures' - Labeled as 'Plates'
- Contain textual/ numerical data - Contain graphic information -Plates are photographs/ images
- Title is above the data - Title is below the graph - Title is below the image
- Titles should explain the table, indicate statistical information and provide citation information - Title should describe the graph, with a legend explaining the symbols in the figure and provide citation information - Titles should explain the image and provide citation information 

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Websites

 

Include the name of the author or organisation responsible for the website and the date of website's creation or last revision.

Example

SPRING Singapore is the agency under the governance of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) which oversees consumber goods safety in Singapore as well as the development of internationally-recognised standards and quality assurance (Spring Singapore, 3 February 2015).
You can also include web addresses directly in your text. Be careful not to create any misinterpretation of any sentence punctuation taken as part of the punctuation in the website addresses. To avoid that, enclose the web addresses with arrow brackets.

Example

Health Sciences Authority's web site ‹https://www.hsa.gov.sg/› provides information on health products regulation.

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Lecture Notes

 

The title of the lecture notes may be a descriptive rather than "formal" title, but just the following would suffice for in-text citation.

Example

Lim (2015) elaborated on examples where a company should choose the market that it can serve most profitably.
If the lecture notes were obtained from Blackboard/ online, you should also include the URL and date of access.

Reference list example

Lim, M. (2015). Marketing: An Introduction, lecture notes distributed in BA0357: Fundamentals of Marketing at Singapore Polytechnic on 5 January 2015. Available at: https://esp.sp.edu.sg (Accessed 5 June 2015).

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Using Ibid. and Op. cit.

 

You may have come across Latin abbreviations ibid. and op. cit. What do they mean?

Ibid. This refers to 'in the same source and is used for making consecutive references to the same source.

Example

Brands possess the ability to cross borders, and bind people and cultures (Clifton, et al. 2003, p. 4) and are so powerful (ibid., p. 5). In 2002, the brand value of Coca-Cola was $69.6 billion (ibid., p. 29).
Op. cit. This is used if you refer again to the same source but have referenced other sources in between.

Example

The strongest brands are able to forge personal identity (Clifton, et al. 2003, p. 4) where Apple's Mac users feel emotionally connected to the brand and fellow users (Kompella, et al. 2014, p. 62). This is an example of brand commitment, where consumers feel develop a relationship and long-term emotional attachment to the brand (Clifton, et al., op. cit., p. 99).

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